Catecholamines released by sympathetic nerves can activate adrenergic receptors present on nearly every cell type, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Using in vitro systems, murine tumor models in wild-type and genetically modified (β2-AR–/–) mice, and adoptive transfer approaches, we found that the degree of β2-AR signaling significantly influences MDSC frequency and survival in tumors and other tissues. It also modulates their expression of immunosuppressive molecules such as arginase-I and PD-L1 and alters their ability to suppress the proliferation of T cells. The regulatory functions of β2-AR signaling in MDSCs were also found to be dependent upon STAT3 phosphorylation. Moreover, we observed that the β2-AR–mediated increase in MDSC survival is dependent upon Fas-FasL interactions, and this is consistent with gene expression analyses, which reveal a greater expression of apoptosis-related genes in β2-AR–/– MDSCs. Our data reveal the potential of β2-AR signaling to increase the generation of MDSCs from both murine and human peripheral blood cells and that the immunosuppressive function of MDSCs can be mitigated by treatment with β-AR antagonists, or enhanced by β-AR agonists. This strongly supports the possibility that reducing stress-induced activation of β2-ARs could help to overcome immune suppression and enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy and other cancer therapies.
Hemn Mohammadpour, Cameron R. MacDonald, Guanxi Qiao, Minhui Chen, Bowen Dong, Bonnie L. Hylander, Philip L. McCarthy, Scott I. Abrams, Elizabeth A. Repasky
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and secondary pulmonary embolism cause approximately 100,000 deaths per year in the United States. Physical immobility is the most significant risk factor for DVT, but a molecular and cellular basis for this link has not been defined. We found that the endothelial cells surrounding the venous valve, where DVTs originate, express high levels of FOXC2 and PROX1, transcription factors known to be activated by oscillatory shear stress. The perivalvular venous endothelial cells exhibited a powerful antithrombotic phenotype characterized by low levels of the prothrombotic proteins vWF, P-selectin, and ICAM1 and high levels of the antithrombotic proteins thrombomodulin (THBD), endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). The perivalvular antithrombotic phenotype was lost following genetic deletion of FOXC2 or femoral artery ligation to reduce venous flow in mice, and at the site of origin of human DVT associated with fatal pulmonary embolism. Oscillatory blood flow was detected at perivalvular sites in human veins following muscular activity, but not in the immobile state or after activation of an intermittent compression device designed to prevent DVT. These findings support a mechanism of DVT pathogenesis in which loss of muscular activity results in loss of oscillatory shear–dependent transcriptional and antithrombotic phenotypes in perivalvular venous endothelial cells, and suggest that prevention of DVT and pulmonary embolism may be improved by mechanical devices specifically designed to restore perivalvular oscillatory flow.
John D. Welsh, Mark H. Hoofnagle, Sharika Bamezai, Michael Oxendine, Lillian Lim, Joshua D. Hall, Jisheng Yang, Susan Schultz, James Douglas Engel, Tsutomu Kume, Guillermo Oliver, Juan M. Jimenez, Mark L. Kahn
microRNA-21 (miR-21) is the most commonly upregulated miRNA in solid tumors. This cancer-associated microRNA (oncomiR) regulates various downstream effectors associated with tumor pathogenesis during all stages of carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the function of miR-21 in noncancer cells of the tumor microenvironment to further evaluate its contribution to tumor progression. We report that the expression of miR-21 in cells of the tumor immune infiltrate, and in particular in macrophages, was responsible for promoting tumor growth. Absence of miR-21 expression in tumor- associated macrophages (TAMs), caused a global rewiring of their transcriptional regulatory network that was skewed toward a proinflammatory angiostatic phenotype. This promoted an antitumoral immune response characterized by a macrophage-mediated improvement of cytotoxic T-cell responses through the induction of cytokines and chemokines, including IL-12 and C-X-C motif chemokine 10. These effects translated to a reduction in tumor neovascularization and an induction of tumor cell death that led to decreased tumor growth. Additionally, using the carrier peptide pH (low) insertion peptide, we were able to target miR-21 in TAMs, which decreased tumor growth even under conditions where miR-21 expression was deficient in cancer cells. Consequently, miR-21 inhibition in TAMs induced an angiostatic and immunostimulatory activation with potential therapeutic implications.
Mahnaz Sahraei, Balkrishna Chaube, Yuting Liu, Jonathan Sun, Alanna Kaplan, Nathan L. Price, Wen Ding, Stanley Oyaghire, Rolando García-Milian, Sameet Mehta, Yana K. Reshetnyak, Raman Bahal, Paolo Fiorina, Peter M. Glazer, David L. Rimm, Carlos Fernández-Hernando, Yajaira Suárez
CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rely on rapid reorganization of the branched F-actin network to drive the polarized secretion of lytic granules, initiating target cell death during the adaptive immune response. Branched F-actin is generated by the nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. Patients with mutations in the actin-related protein complex 1B (ARPC1B) subunit of Arp2/3 show combined immunodeficiency, with symptoms of immune dysregulation, including recurrent viral infections and reduced CD8+ T cell count. Here, we show that loss of ARPC1B led to loss of CTL cytotoxicity, with the defect arising at 2 different levels. First, ARPC1B is required for lamellipodia formation, cell migration, and actin reorganization across the immune synapse. Second, we found that ARPC1B is indispensable for the maintenance of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 membrane proteins at the plasma membrane of CTLs, as recycling via the retromer and WASH complexes was impaired in the absence of ARPC1B. Loss of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 gave rise to defects in T cell signaling and proliferation upon antigen stimulation of ARPC1B-deficient CTLs, leading to a progressive loss of CD8+ T cells. This triggered an activation-induced immunodeficiency of CTL activity in ARPC1B-deficient patients, which could explain the susceptibility to severe and prolonged viral infections.
Lyra O. Randzavola, Katharina Strege, Marie Juzans, Yukako Asano, Jane C. Stinchcombe, Christian M. Gawden-Bone, Matthew N.J. Seaman, Taco W. Kuijpers, Gillian M. Griffiths
Consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes; both of these diseases are also associated with systemic inflammation, similar to HIV infection. A HFD induces intestinal dysbiosis and impairs liver function and coagulation, with a potential negative impact on HIV/SIV pathogenesis. We administered a HFD rich in saturated fats and cholesterol to nonpathogenic (African green monkeys) and pathogenic (pigtailed macaques) SIV hosts. The HFD had a negative impact on SIV disease progression in both species. Thus, increased cell-associated SIV DNA and RNA occurred in the HFD-receiving nonhuman primates, indicating a potential reservoir expansion. The HFD induced prominent immune cell infiltration in the adipose tissue, an important SIV reservoir, and heightened systemic immune activation and inflammation, altering the intestinal immune environment and triggering gut damage and microbial translocation. Furthermore, HFD altered lipid metabolism and HDL oxidation and also induced liver steatosis and fibrosis. These metabolic disturbances triggered incipient atherosclerosis and heightened cardiovascular risk in the SIV-infected HFD-receiving nonhuman primates. Our study demonstrates that dietary intake has a discernable impact on the natural history of HIV/SIV infections and suggests that dietary changes can be used as adjuvant approaches for HIV-infected subjects, to reduce inflammation and the risk of non-AIDS comorbidities and possibly other infectious diseases.
Tianyu He, Cuiling Xu, Noah Krampe, Stephanie M. Dillon, Paola Sette, Elizabeth Falwell, George S. Haret-Richter, Tiffany Butterfield, Tammy L. Dunsmore, William M. McFadden Jr., Kathryn J. Martin, Benjamin B. Policicchio, Kevin D. Raehtz, Ellen P. Penn, Russell P. Tracy, Ruy M. Ribeiro, Daniel N. Frank, Cara C. Wilson, Alan L. Landay, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), although promising, have variable benefit in head and neck cancer (HNC). We noted that tumor galectin-1 (Gal1) levels were inversely correlated with treatment response and survival in patients with HNC who were treated with ICIs. Using multiple HNC mouse models, we show that tumor-secreted Gal1 mediates immune evasion by preventing T cell migration into the tumor. Mechanistically, Gal1 reprograms the tumor endothelium to upregulate cell-surface programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and galectin-9. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we show that Gal1 blockade increases intratumoral T cell infiltration, leading to a better response to anti-PD1 therapy with or without radiotherapy. Our study reveals the function of Gal1 in transforming the tumor endothelium into an immune-suppressive barrier and that its inhibition synergizes with ICIs.
Dhanya K. Nambiar, Todd Aguilera, Hongbin Cao, Shirley Kwok, Christina Kong, Joshua Bloomstein, Zemin Wang, Vangipuram S. Rangan, Dadi Jiang, Rie von Eyben, Rachel Liang, Sonya Agarwal, A. Dimitrios Colevas, Alan Korman, Clint T. Allen, Ravindra Uppaluri, Albert C. Koong, Amato Giaccia, Quynh Thu Le
The proximal tubule has a remarkable capacity for repair after acute injury, but the cellular lineage and molecular mechanisms underlying this repair response are incompletely understood. Here, we developed a Kim1-GFPCreERt2 knockin mouse line (Kim1-GCE) in order to perform genetic lineage tracing of dedifferentiated cells while measuring the cellular transcriptome of proximal tubule during repair. Acutely injured genetically labeled clones coexpressed KIM1, VIMENTIN, SOX9, and KI67, indicating a dedifferentiated and proliferative state. Clonal analysis revealed clonal expansion of Kim1+ cells, indicating that acutely injured, dedifferentiated proximal tubule cells, rather than fixed tubular progenitor cells, account for repair. Translational profiling during injury and repair revealed signatures of both successful and unsuccessful maladaptive repair. The transcription factor Foxm1 was induced early in injury, was required for epithelial proliferation in vitro, and was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulation. In conclusion, dedifferentiated proximal tubule cells effect proximal tubule repair, and we reveal an EGFR/FOXM1-dependent signaling pathway that drives proliferative repair after injury.
Monica Chang-Panesso, Farid F. Kadyrov, Matthew Lalli, Haojia Wu, Shiyo Ikeda, Eirini Kefaloyianni, Mai M. Abdelmageed, Andreas Herrlich, Akio Kobayashi, Benjamin D. Humphreys
Manganese (Mn), an essential metal and nutrient, is toxic in excess. Toxicity classically results from inhalational exposures in individuals who work in industrial settings. The first known disease of inherited Mn excess, identified in 2012, is caused by mutations in the metal exporter SLC30A10 and is characterized by Mn excess, dystonia, cirrhosis, and polycythemia. To investigate the role of SLC30A10 in Mn homeostasis, we first generated whole-body Slc30a10–deficient mice, which developed severe Mn excess and impaired systemic and biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 localized to canalicular membranes of hepatocytes, but mice with liver Slc30a10 deficiency developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 also localized to the apical membrane of enterocytes, but mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in small intestines developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired Mn export into the lumen of the small intestines. Finally, mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in liver and small intestines developed Mn excess that was less severe than that observed in mice with whole-body Slc30a10 deficiency, suggesting that additional sites of Slc30a10 expression contribute to Mn homeostasis. Overall, these results indicated that Slc30a10 is essential for Mn excretion by hepatocytes and enterocytes and could be an effective target for pharmacological intervention to treat Mn toxicity.
Courtney J. Mercadante, Milankumar Prajapati, Heather L. Conboy, Miriam E. Dash, Carolina Herrera, Michael A. Pettiglio, Layra Cintron-Rivera, Madeleine A. Salesky, Deepa B. Rao, Thomas B. Bartnikas
Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with spontaneous burning pain, hyperalgesia, and allodynia. Although acetaldehyde has been implicated in the painful alcoholic neuropathy, the mechanism by which the ethanol metabolite causes pain symptoms is unknown. Acute ethanol ingestion caused delayed mechanical allodynia in mice. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or deletion of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a sensor for oxidative and carbonyl stress, prevented allodynia. Acetaldehyde generated by ADH in both liver and Schwann cells surrounding nociceptors was required for TRPA1-induced mechanical allodynia. Plp1-Cre Trpa1fl/fl mice with a tamoxifen-inducible specific deletion of TRPA1 in Schwann cells revealed that channel activation by acetaldehyde in these cells initiates a NADPH oxidase-1–dependent (NOX1-dependent) production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), which sustains allodynia by paracrine targeting of nociceptor TRPA1. Chronic ethanol ingestion caused prolonged mechanical allodynia and loss of intraepidermal small nerve fibers in WT mice. While Trpa1–/– or Plp1-Cre Trpa1fl/fl mice did not develop mechanical allodynia, they did not show any protection from the small-fiber neuropathy. Human Schwann cells express ADH/TRPA1/NOX1 and recapitulate the proalgesic functions of mouse Schwann cells. TRPA1 antagonists might attenuate some symptoms of alcohol-related pain.
Francesco De Logu, Simone Li Puma, Lorenzo Landini, Francesca Portelli, Alessandro Innocenti, Daniel Souza Monteiro de Araujo, Malvin N. Janal, Riccardo Patacchini, Nigel W. Bunnett, Pierangelo Geppetti, Romina Nassini
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) frequently invades the maxillary or mandibular bone, and this bone invasion is closely associated with poor prognosis and survival. Here, we show that CCL28 functions as a negative regulator of OSCC bone invasion. CCL28 inhibited invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and its inhibition of EMT was characterized by induced E-cadherin expression and reduced nuclear localization of β-catenin in OSCC cells with detectable RUNX3 expression levels. CCL28 signaling via CCR10 increased retinoic acid receptor-β (RARβ) expression by reducing the interaction between RARα and HDAC1. In addition, CCL28 reduced RANKL production in OSCC and osteoblastic cells and blocked RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in osteoclast precursors. Intraperitoneally administered CCL28 inhibited tumor growth and osteolysis in mouse calvaria and tibia inoculated with OSCC cells. RARβ expression was also increased in tumor tissues. In patients with OSCC, low CCL28, CCR10, and RARβ expression levels were highly correlated with bone invasion. Patients with OSCC who had higher expression of CCL28, CCR10, or RARβ had significantly better overall survival. These findings suggest that CCL28, CCR10, and RARβ are useful markers for the prediction and treatment of OSCC bone invasion. Furthermore, CCL28 upregulation in OSCC cells or CCL28 treatment can be a therapeutic strategy for OSCC bone invasion.
Junhee Park, Xianglan Zhang, Sun Kyoung Lee, Na-Young Song, Seung Hwa Son, Ki Rim Kim, Jae Hoon Shim, Kwang-Kyun Park, Won-Yoon Chung
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