Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a public health concern with an annual mortality rate that exceeds those of breast and prostate cancer, heart failure, and diabetes combined. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are drivers of AKI-associated pathology; however, the pathways that mediate these events are poorly defined. Here, using a murine cisplatin-induced AKI model, we determined that both oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage are associated with reduced levels of renal sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). Treatment with the AMPK agonist AICAR or the antioxidant agent acetyl-
Marina Morigi, Luca Perico, Cinzia Rota, Lorena Longaretti, Sara Conti, Daniela Rottoli, Rubina Novelli, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Ariela Benigni
Fibrosis underlies the loss of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in kidney transplant recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). Here, we studied the effect of an intronic SNP in
Madhav C. Menon, Peter Y. Chuang, Zhengzhe Li, Chengguo Wei, Weijia Zhang, Yi Luan, Zhengzi Yi, Huabao Xiong, Christopher Woytovich, Ilana Greene, Jessica Overbey, Ivy Rosales, Emilia Bagiella, Rong Chen, Meng Ma, Li Li, Wei Ding, Arjang Djamali, Millagros Saminego, Philip J. O’Connell, Lorenzo Gallon, Robert Colvin, Bernd Schroppel, John Cijiang He, Barbara Murphy
The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) is essential for Na+ homeostasis, and dysregulation of this channel underlies many forms of hypertension. Recent studies suggest that mTOR regulates phosphorylation and activation of serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), which is known to inhibit ENaC internalization and degradation; however, it is not clear whether mTOR contributes to the regulation of renal tubule ion transport. Here, we evaluated the effect of selective mTOR inhibitors on kidney tubule Na+ and K+ transport in WT and
Catherine E. Gleason, Gustavo Frindt, Chih-Jen Cheng, Michael Ng, Atif Kidwai, Florian Lang, Michel Baum, Lawrence G. Palmer, David Pearce
MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) contributes to the pathogenesis of fibrogenic diseases in multiple organs, including the kidneys, potentially by silencing metabolic pathways that are critical for cellular ATP generation, ROS production, and inflammatory signaling. Here, we developed highly specific oligonucleotides that distribute to the kidney and inhibit miR-21 function when administered subcutaneously and evaluated the therapeutic potential of these anti–miR-21 oligonucleotides in chronic kidney disease. In a murine model of Alport nephropathy, miR-21 silencing did not produce any adverse effects and resulted in substantially milder kidney disease, with minimal albuminuria and dysfunction, compared with vehicle-treated mice. miR-21 silencing dramatically improved survival of Alport mice and reduced histological end points, including glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular injury, and inflammation. Anti–miR-21 enhanced PPARα/retinoid X receptor (PPARα/RXR) activity and downstream signaling pathways in glomerular, tubular, and interstitial cells. Moreover, miR-21 silencing enhanced mitochondrial function, which reduced mitochondrial ROS production and thus preserved tubular functions. Inhibition of miR-21 was protective against TGF-β–induced fibrogenesis and inflammation in glomerular and interstitial cells, likely as the result of enhanced PPARα/RXR activity and improved mitochondrial function. Together, these results demonstrate that inhibition of miR-21 represents a potential therapeutic strategy for chronic kidney diseases including Alport nephropathy.
Ivan G. Gomez, Deidre A. MacKenna, Bryce G. Johnson, Vivek Kaimal, Allie M. Roach, Shuyu Ren, Naoki Nakagawa, Cuiyan Xin, Rick Newitt, Shweta Pandya, Tai-He Xia, Xueqing Liu, Dorin-Bogdan Borza, Monica Grafals, Stuart J. Shankland, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Didier Portilla, Shiguang Liu, B. Nelson Chau, Jeremy S. Duffield
The most severe form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease occurs in patients with mutations in the gene (
Yiqiang Cai, Sorin V. Fedeles, Ke Dong, Georgia Anyatonwu, Tamehito Onoe, Michihiro Mitobe, Jian-Dong Gao, Dayne Okuhara, Xin Tian, Anna-Rachel Gallagher, Zhangui Tang, Xiaoli Xie, Maria D. Lalioti, Ann-Hwee Lee, Barbara E. Ehrlich, Stefan Somlo
Ischemia is a leading cause of acute kidney injury. Kidney ischemia is associated with loss of cellular ion homeostasis; however, the pathways that underlie ion homeostasis dysfunction are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the nonselective cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) in a murine model of kidney ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. TRPM2-deficient mice were resistant to ischemic injury, as reflected by improved kidney function, reduced histologic damage, suppression of proapoptotic pathways, and reduced inflammation. Moreover, pharmacologic TRPM2 inhibition was also protective against I/R injury. TRPM2 was localized mainly in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, and studies in chimeric mice indicated that the effects of TRPM2 are due to expression in parenchymal cells rather than hematopoietic cells. TRPM2-deficient mice had less oxidative stress and lower levels of NADPH oxidase activity after ischemia. While RAC1 is a component of the NADPH oxidase complex, its relation to TRPM2 and kidney ischemic injury is unknown. Following kidney ischemia, TRPM2 promoted RAC1 activation, with active RAC1 physically interacting with TRPM2 and increasing TRPM2 expression at the cell membrane. Finally, inhibition of RAC1 reduced oxidant stress and ischemic injury in vivo. These results demonstrate that TRPM2-dependent RAC1 activation increases oxidant stress and suggest that therapeutic approaches targeting TRPM2 and/or RAC1 may be effective in reducing ischemic kidney injury.
Guofeng Gao, Weiwei Wang, Raghu K. Tadagavadi, Nicole E. Briley, Michael I. Love, Barbara A. Miller, W. Brian Reeves
Familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt) is a monogenic disease resulting from mutations in genes encoding WNK kinases, the ubiquitin scaffold protein cullin 3 (
James A. McCormick, Chao-Ling Yang, Chong Zhang, Brittney Davidge, Katharina I. Blankenstein, Andrew S. Terker, Bethzaida Yarbrough, Nicholas P. Meermeier, Hae J. Park, Belinda McCully, Mark West, Aljona Borschewski, Nina Himmerkus, Markus Bleich, Sebastian Bachmann, Kerim Mutig, Eduardo R. Argaiz, Gerardo Gamba, Jeffrey D. Singer, David H. Ellison
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis underlies all forms of end-stage kidney disease. TGF-β mediates both the development and the progression of kidney fibrosis through binding and activation of the serine/threonine kinase type II TGF-β receptor (TβRII), which in turn promotes a TβRI-mediated SMAD-dependent fibrotic signaling cascade. Autophosphorylation of serine residues within TβRII is considered the principal regulatory mechanism of TβRII-induced signaling; however, there are 5 tyrosine residues within the cytoplasmic tail that could potentially mediate TβRII-dependent SMAD activation. Here, we determined that phosphorylation of tyrosines within the TβRII tail was essential for SMAD-dependent fibrotic signaling within cells of the kidney collecting duct. Conversely, the T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP) dephosphorylated TβRII tail tyrosine residues, resulting in inhibition of TβR-dependent fibrotic signaling. The collagen-binding receptor integrin α1β1 was required for recruitment of TCPTP to the TβRII tail, as mice lacking this integrin exhibited impaired TCPTP-mediated tyrosine dephosphorylation of TβRII that led to severe fibrosis in a unilateral ureteral obstruction model of renal fibrosis. Together, these findings uncover a crosstalk between integrin α1β1 and TβRII that is essential for TβRII-mediated SMAD activation and fibrotic signaling pathways.
Xiwu Chen, Hongtao Wang, Hong-Jun Liao, Wen Hu, Leslie Gewin, Glenda Mernaugh, Sheng Zhang, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Lorenzo Vega-Montoto, Roberto M. Vanacore, Reinhard Fässler, Roy Zent, Ambra Pozzi
α–Intercalated cells (A-ICs) within the collecting duct of the kidney are critical for acid-base homeostasis. Here, we have shown that A-ICs also serve as both sentinels and effectors in the defense against urinary infections. In a murine urinary tract infection model, A-ICs bound uropathogenic
Neal Paragas, Ritwij Kulkarni, Max Werth, Kai M. Schmidt-Ott, Catherine Forster, Rong Deng, Qingyin Zhang, Eugenia Singer, Alexander D. Klose, Tian Huai Shen, Kevin P. Francis, Sunetra Ray, Soundarapandian Vijayakumar, Samuel Seward, Mary E. Bovino, Katherine Xu, Yared Takabe, Fábio E. Amaral, Sumit Mohan, Rebecca Wax, Kaitlyn Corbin, Simone Sanna-Cherchi, Kiyoshi Mori, Lynne Johnson, Thomas Nickolas, Vivette D’Agati, Chyuan-Sheng Lin, Andong Qiu, Qais Al-Awqati, Adam J. Ratner, Jonathan Barasch
The transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) has the ability, along with other factors, to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we determined that KLF4 is expressed in kidney glomerular podocytes and is decreased in both animal models and humans exhibiting a proteinuric. Transient restoration of KLF4 expression in podocytes of diseased glomeruli in vivo, either by gene transfer or transgenic expression, resulted in a sustained increase in nephrin expression and a decrease in albuminuria. In mice harboring podocyte-specific deletion of
Kaori Hayashi, Hiroyuki Sasamura, Mari Nakamura, Tatsuhiko Azegami, Hideyo Oguchi, Yusuke Sakamaki, Hiroshi Itoh
The hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1 and HIF-2 mediate key cellular adaptions to hypoxia and contribute to renal homeostasis and pathophysiology; however, little is known about the cell type–specific functions of HIF-1 and HIF-2 in response to ischemic kidney injury. Here, we used a genetic approach to specifically dissect the roles of endothelial HIF-1 and HIF-2 in murine models of hypoxic kidney injury induced by ischemia reperfusion or ureteral obstruction. In both models, inactivation of endothelial HIF increased injury-associated renal inflammation and fibrosis. Specifically, inactivation of endothelial HIF-2α, but not endothelial HIF-1α, resulted in increased expression of renal injury markers and inflammatory cell infiltration in the postischemic kidney, which was reversed by blockade of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA4) using monoclonal antibodies. In contrast, pharmacologic or genetic activation of HIF via HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibition protected wild-type animals from ischemic kidney injury and inflammation; however, these same protective effects were not observed in HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor–treated animals lacking endothelial HIF-2. Taken together, our data indicate that endothelial HIF-2 protects from hypoxia-induced renal damage and represent a potential therapeutic target for renoprotection and prevention of fibrosis following acute ischemic injury.
Pinelopi P. Kapitsinou, Hideto Sano, Mark Michael, Hanako Kobayashi, Olena Davidoff, Aihua Bian, Bing Yao, Ming-Zhi Zhang, Raymond C. Harris, Kevin J. Duffy, Connie L. Erickson-Miller, Timothy A. Sutton, Volker H. Haase
In a wide array of kidney diseases, type 1 angiotensin (AT1) receptors are present on the immune cells that infiltrate the renal interstitium. Here, we examined the actions of AT1 receptors on macrophages in progressive renal fibrosis and found that macrophage-specific AT1 receptor deficiency exacerbates kidney fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Macrophages isolated from obstructed kidneys of mice lacking AT1 receptors solely on macrophages had heightened expression of proinflammatory M1 cytokines, including IL-1. Evaluation of isolated AT1 receptor–deficient macrophages confirmed the propensity of these cells to produce exaggerated levels of M1 cytokines, which led to more severe renal epithelial cell damage via IL-1 receptor activation in coculture compared with WT macrophages. A murine kidney crosstransplantation concomitant with UUO model revealed that augmentation of renal fibrosis instigated by AT1 receptor–deficient macrophages is mediated by IL-1 receptor stimulation in the kidney. This study indicates that a key role of AT1 receptors on macrophages is to protect the kidney from fibrosis by limiting activation of IL-1 receptors in the kidney.
Jian-dong Zhang, Mehul B. Patel, Robert Griffiths, Paul C. Dolber, Phillip Ruiz, Matthew A. Sparks, Johannes Stegbauer, Huixia Jin, Jose A. Gomez, Anne F. Buckley, William S. Lefler, Daian Chen, Steven D. Crowley
Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) signaling mediates physiological and pathological processes in multiple organs, including the renal podocyte; however, in vivo podocyte [Ca2+]i dynamics are not fully understood. Here we developed an imaging approach that uses multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to directly visualize podocyte [Ca2+]i dynamics within the intact kidneys of live mice expressing a fluorescent calcium indicator only in these cells. [Ca2+]i was at a low steady-state level in control podocytes, while Ang II infusion caused a minor elevation. Experimental focal podocyte injury triggered a robust and sustained elevation of podocyte [Ca2+]i around the injury site and promoted cell-to-cell propagating podocyte [Ca2+]i waves along capillary loops. [Ca2+]i wave propagation was ameliorated by inhibitors of purinergic [Ca2+]i signaling as well as in animals lacking the P2Y2 purinergic receptor. Increased podocyte [Ca2+]i resulted in contraction of the glomerular tuft and increased capillary albumin permeability. In preclinical models of renal fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, high podocyte [Ca2+]i correlated with increased cell motility. Our findings provide a visual demonstration of the in vivo importance of podocyte [Ca2+]i in glomerular pathology and suggest that purinergic [Ca2+]i signaling is a robust and key pathogenic mechanism in podocyte injury. This in vivo imaging approach will allow future detailed investigation of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of glomerular disease in the intact living kidney.
James L. Burford, Karie Villanueva, Lisa Lam, Anne Riquier-Brison, Matthias J. Hackl, Jeffrey Pippin, Stuart J. Shankland, János Peti-Peterdi
Injury to the specialized epithelial cells of the glomerulus (podocytes) underlies the pathogenesis of all forms of proteinuric kidney disease; however, the specific genetic changes that mediate podocyte dysfunction after injury are not fully understood. Here, we performed a large-scale insertional mutagenic screen of injury-resistant podocytes isolated from mice and found that increased expression of the gene
Uma Potla, Jie Ni, Justin Vadaparampil, Guozhe Yang, Jeremy S. Leventhal, Kirk N. Campbell, Peter Y. Chuang, Alexei Morozov, John C. He, Vivette D. D’Agati, Paul E. Klotman, Lewis Kaufman
Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) is a primary kidney disease that is commonly associated with proteinuria and progressive loss of glomerular function, leading to development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). FSGS is characterized by podocyte injury and depletion and collapse of glomerular capillary segments. Progression of FSGS is associated with TGF-β activation in podocytes; however, it is not clear how TGF-β signaling promotes disease. Here, we determined that podocyte-specific activation of TGF-β signaling in transgenic mice and BALB/c mice with Adriamycin-induced glomerulosclerosis is associated with endothelin-1 (EDN1) release by podocytes, which mediates mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction in adjacent endothelial cells via paracrine EDN1 receptor type A (EDNRA) activation. Endothelial dysfunction promoted podocyte apoptosis, and inhibition of EDNRA or scavenging of mitochondrial-targeted ROS prevented podocyte loss, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. We confirmed reciprocal crosstalk between podocytes and endothelial cells in a coculture system. Biopsies from patients with FSGS exhibited increased mitochondrial DNA damage, consistent with EDNRA-mediated glomerular endothelial mitochondrial oxidative stress. Our studies indicate that segmental glomerulosclerosis develops as a result of podocyte-endothelial crosstalk mediated by EDN1/EDNRA-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and suggest that targeting the reciprocal interaction between podocytes and endothelia may provide opportunities for therapeutic intervention in FSGS.
Ilse Daehn, Gabriella Casalena, Taoran Zhang, Shaolin Shi, Franz Fenninger, Nicholas Barasch, Liping Yu, Vivette D’Agati, Detlef Schlondorff, Wilhelm Kriz, Borje Haraldsson, Erwin P. Bottinger
Acute kidney injury (AKI) promotes an abrupt loss of kidney function that results in substantial morbidity and mortality. Considerable effort has gone toward identification of diagnostic biomarkers and analysis of AKI-associated molecular events; however, most studies have adopted organ-wide approaches and have not elucidated the interplay among different cell types involved in AKI pathophysiology. To better characterize AKI-associated molecular and cellular events, we developed a mouse line that enables the identification of translational profiles in specific cell types. This strategy relies on CRE recombinase–dependent activation of an EGFP-tagged L10a ribosomal protein subunit, which allows translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) of mRNA populations in CRE-expressing cells. Combining this mouse line with cell type–specific CRE-driver lines, we identified distinct cellular responses in an ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) model of AKI. Twenty-four hours following IRI, distinct translational signatures were identified in the nephron, kidney interstitial cell populations, vascular endothelium, and macrophages/monocytes. Furthermore, TRAP captured known IRI-associated markers, validating this approach. Biological function annotation, canonical pathway analysis, and in situ analysis of identified response genes provided insight into cell-specific injury signatures. Our study provides a deep, cell-based view of early injury-associated molecular events in AKI and documents a versatile, genetic tool to monitor cell-specific and temporal-specific biological processes in disease modeling.
Jing Liu, A. Michaela Krautzberger, Shannan H. Sui, Oliver M. Hofmann, Ying Chen, Manfred Baetscher, Ivica Grgic, Sanjeev Kumar, Benjamin Humphreys, Winston A. Hide, Andrew P. McMahon
Podocytes are specialized actin-rich epithelial cells that line the kidney glomerular filtration barrier. The interface between the podocyte and the glomerular basement membrane requires integrins, and defects in either α3 or β1 integrin, or the α3β1 ligand laminin result in nephrotic syndrome in murine models. The large cytoskeletal protein talin1 is not only pivotal for integrin activation, but also directly links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we found that mice lacking talin1 specifically in podocytes display severe proteinuria, foot process effacement, and kidney failure. Loss of talin1 in podocytes caused only a modest reduction in β1 integrin activation, podocyte cell adhesion, and cell spreading; however, the actin cytoskeleton of podocytes was profoundly altered by the loss of talin1. Evaluation of murine models of glomerular injury and patients with nephrotic syndrome revealed that calpain-induced talin1 cleavage in podocytes might promote pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of calpain activity following glomerular injury substantially reduced talin1 cleavage, albuminuria, and foot process effacement. Collectively, these findings indicate that podocyte talin1 is critical for maintaining the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier and provide insight into the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome.
Xuefei Tian, Jin Ju Kim, Susan M. Monkley, Nanami Gotoh, Ramiro Nandez, Keita Soda, Kazunori Inoue, Daniel M. Balkin, Hossam Hassan, Sung Hyun Son, Yashang Lee, Gilbert Moeckel, David A. Calderwood, Lawrence B. Holzman, David R. Critchley, Roy Zent, Jochen Reiser, Shuta Ishibe
Chronic kidney disease progression can be predicted based on the degree of tubular atrophy, which is the result of proximal tubule apoptosis. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 regulates proximal tubule cell survival through interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], but pathophysiologic triggers for NHE1 inactivation are unknown. Because glomerular injury permits proximal tubule luminal exposure and reabsorption of fatty acid/albumin complexes, we hypothesized that accumulation of amphipathic, long-chain acyl-CoA (LC-CoA) metabolites stimulates lipoapoptosis by competing with the structurally similar PI(4,5)P2 for NHE1 binding. Kidneys from mouse models of progressive, albuminuric kidney disease exhibited increased fatty acids, LC-CoAs, and caspase-2–dependent proximal tubule lipoapoptosis. LC-CoAs and the cytosolic domain of NHE1 directly interacted, with an affinity comparable to that of the PI(4,5)P2-NHE1 interaction, and competing LC-CoAs disrupted binding of the NHE1 cytosolic tail to PI(4,5)P2. Inhibition of LC-CoA catabolism reduced NHE1 activity and enhanced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of proximal tubule LC-CoA generation preserved NHE1 activity and protected against apoptosis. Our data indicate that albuminuria/lipiduria enhances lipotoxin delivery to the proximal tubule and accumulation of LC-CoAs contributes to tubular atrophy by severing the NHE1-PI(4,5)P2 interaction, thereby lowering the apoptotic threshold. Furthermore, these data suggest that NHE1 functions as a metabolic sensor for lipotoxicity.
Shenaz Khan, Bassam G. Abu Jawdeh, Monu Goel, William P. Schilling, Mark D. Parker, Michelle A. Puchowicz, Satya P. Yadav, Raymond C. Harris, Ashraf El-Meanawy, Malcolm Hoshi, Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn, Isabelle Deschênes, Eckhard Ficker, Jeffrey R. Schelling
The renal disorder C3 glomerulopathy with dense deposit disease (C3G-DDD) pattern results from complement dysfunction and primarily affects children and young adults. There is no effective treatment, and patients often progress to end-stage renal failure. A small fraction of C3G-DDD cases linked to factor H or C3 gene mutations as well as autoantibodies have been reported. Here, we examined an index family with 2 patients with C3G-DDD and identified a chromosomal deletion in the complement factor H–related (
Qian Chen, Michael Wiesener, Hannes U. Eberhardt, Andrea Hartmann, Barbara Uzonyi, Michael Kirschfink, Kerstin Amann, Maike Buettner, Tim Goodship, Christian Hugo, Christine Skerka, Peter F. Zipfel
Identification of single-gene causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) has furthered the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. Here, using a combination of homozygosity mapping and whole human exome resequencing, we identified mutations in the aarF domain containing kinase 4 (
Shazia Ashraf, Heon Yung Gee, Stephanie Woerner, Letian X. Xie, Virginia Vega-Warner, Svjetlana Lovric, Humphrey Fang, Xuewen Song, Daniel C. Cattran, Carmen Avila-Casado, Andrew D. Paterson, Patrick Nitschké, Christine Bole-Feysot, Pierre Cochat, Julian Esteve-Rudd, Birgit Haberberger, Susan J. Allen, Weibin Zhou, Rannar Airik, Edgar A. Otto, Moumita Barua, Mohamed H. Al-Hamed, Jameela A. Kari, Jonathan Evans, Agnieszka Bierzynska, Moin A. Saleem, Detlef Böckenhauer, Robert Kleta, Sherif El Desoky, Duygu O. Hacihamdioglu, Faysal Gok, Joseph Washburn, Roger C. Wiggins, Murim Choi, Richard P. Lifton, Shawn Levy, Zhe Han, Leonardo Salviati, Holger Prokisch, David S. Williams, Martin Pollak, Catherine F. Clarke, York Pei, Corinne Antignac, Friedhelm Hildebrandt